Dr Dawn Kernagis Inducted Into 2016 Women Divers Hall Of Fame

Dr Dawn Kernagis, Rosemary E Lunn, Roz Lunn, The Underwater Marketing Company, Project Pink Tank, GUE, WKPP, Jarrod Jablonski, Casey McKinley, Duke University, DCS research, female scuba divers, WDHOF, Women Divers Hall Of Fame
Dawn Kernagis - Florida Diving Biomedical Researcher, Educational Outreach Advocate, Cave/Technical Diver (right) pictured with the author (left) Image Copyright: Karl Shreeves

On 8th March this year - International Women's Day - I posted the following about Dr Dawn Kernagis on my Facebook page.

"Bright bunny, great diver. Has much to offer to the world of diving on the research front. Her star will shine brilliantly."

Dawn has been scuba diving since 1993, primarily with GUE. Before she moved to Durham (USA) Dawn worked as GUE’s first Operations Manager. She was a Surface Manager and Team Member on the Woodville Karst Plain Project (WKPP) from 1996 - 2007. She was also the Turner Project Manger on the WKPP Turner – Wakulla record breaking traverse on 15 December 2007. (Casey McKinlay and Jarrod Jablonski took 7 hours to complete the traverse, covering a distance of 36,000 feet or 11km. The decompression penalty on this dive was 15 hours).

In 2010, Dawn conceived and launched Project Pink Tank. The aim of this study is to improve understanding of diver health issues in breast cancer survivors.

Dawn completed her Ph.D. at Duke University in 2012, where she studied the genetics of decompression sickness and mechanisms of oxygen toxicity in divers. Dawn has worked on diving physiology research projects through IHMC, Duke, DAN, and Karolinska Institute in Sweden, including studies focused on decompression sickness, immersion pulmonary edema, oxygen toxicity and carbon dioxide retention in divers.

Dr Dawn Kernagis is a Mentor and Grant Writer with Water Women, Inc.

PADI's TecRec Blog – All Time Top Ten

PADI Tec Rec Blog, Vikki Batten, Blue Lake, scuba diving, rebreathers, RF3, Rebreather Forum 3 Proceedings, A Deceptively Easy Way to Die, Rosemary E Lunn, Roz Lunn, The Underwater Marketing Company, EUROTEK
PADI TecRec
 has just published their 'all time top ten blogs' on tecrec.padi.com. A bitter sweet moment for us. Roz's article - 'A Deceptively Easy Way to Die' - had the largest number of hits. The advice is still pertinent if you have not read it.

Here's a link to the top 10 articles.

Rebreather Forum 3 Conference Proceedings Now Available

The RF3 proceedings are now available, online and free to anyone to download!

Rebreather Forum 3 Proceedings, RF3, 2014, Rebreather Forum 3, RF3, Dr Nick Bird, Mark Caney, Dr Petar Denoble, Rosemary E Lunn, Roz Lunn, Christian MacDonald, Dan Orr, Dr Neal W Pollock, Dr Drew Richardson, Karl Shreeves, Dr Richard Vann, AAUS, DAN, PADI, The Underwater Marketing Company, rebreather diving, scuba diving, American Academy of Underwater Sciences
RF3 Proceedings are available for free online

The Rebreather Forum 3 Proceedings have been published in both print and electronic format following the safety symposium held from 18 - 20 May 2012 at the Caribe Royale Hotel in Orlando, Florida. Two years in the planning and two years in the writing, the 324-page rebreather publication showcases state-of-the-art and science of rebreather diving through the experience and knowledge of some of the world’s leading specialists in education, operations, physiology, medicine and safety. This meeting followed the Rebreather Forum 2 conference which was held in 1996.

The goal of Rebreather Forum 3 was to positively impact the safety of recreational, professional, scientific, media and military rebreather divers by sharing latest developments and best practices. Educational sessions took place in seminars that discussed history and evolution, medicine and physiology, business and operations, incidents and their investigation, design and testing, and training and operations. Safety was the key theme and participants were informed about the most common causes of rebreather incidents and fatalities in hopes of reducing their future occurrence. To round out the meeting, participants were able to gain hands-on experience through various pool sessions.

The 11-member, Rebreather Forum organizing committee comprised Dr. Nicholas Bird (DAN), Mark Caney (PADI), Dr. Petar Denoble (DAN), Michael Lang (American Academy of Underwater Sciences), Rosemary E Lunn (The Underwater Marketing Company), Christian MacDonald (American Academy of Underwater Sciences), Dan Orr (DAN), Dr. Neal W Pollock (DAN), Dr. Drew Richardson (PADI), Karl Shreeves (PADI) and Dr. Richard Vann (DAN).

Rebreather Forum 3, RF3, Dr Nick Bird, Mark Caney, Dr Petar Denoble, Rosemary E Lunn, Roz Lunn, Christian MacDonald, Dan Orr, Dr Neal W Pollock, Dr Drew Richardson, Karl Shreeves, Dr Richard Vann, AAUS, DAN, PADI, The Underwater Marketing Company, rebreather diving, scuba diving, American Academy of Underwater Sciences
The Editors of the RF3 Proceedings (from l to r); Dr Neal W Pollock, DAN Research Director | Dr Richard D Vann, Professor Emeritus Duke Anesthesiology | Dr Petar J Denoble, Vice President DAN Research

“We planned this Forum to introduce divers without rebreather experience to the equipment as well as to assist experienced rebreather divers in refining their skills. This was the ideal format to share ideas and listen to some of the world’s most respected experts on rebreather diving," stated Dr. Richard Vann, former Vice President of Research, Divers Alert Network.

Publishing the Rebreather Forum 3 proceedings is a significant accomplishment by the AAUS, DAN and PADI. All three partners are very pleased to share this invaluable resource with the diving community, in order to help make diving safer. It is hoped that the knowledge gained will reduce incidents and fatalities among rebreather divers.

PDF copies of the complete RF3 Proceedings can be downloaded immediately at no-cost from the DAN website. Print copies will be available in the near-future through a print-on-demand service. More detailed information can be found at the Rebreather Forum 3 website; www.rf30.org

 

TEKDiveUSA.2014 Attendees To Receive A PADI Rebreather Checklist

PADI (Professional Association of Diving Instructors) has today confirmed that TEKDiveUSA.2014 attendees will receive a 'Type T' rebreather checklist in their conference bag.

PADI_Rebreather Checklist_RF3_Rebreather Forum 3_Dr Drew Richardson_Christian McDonald_AAUS_DAN_Dr Petar Denoble_Dr Neal W Pollock_Dr Richard D Vann_Rosemary E Lunn_Roz Lunn_The Underwater Marketing Company_TEKDiveUSA_EUROTEK_RF3 Consensus Statements_safety_rebreathers_checklists_Mark Caney_Karl Shreeves_scuba diving
PADI 'Type T' Rebreather / CCR Checklist

Two years ago this month PADI, along with the AAUS and DAN, hosted Rebreather Forum 3. This three day safety symposium was convened to address major issues surrounding rebreather technology, and its application in commercial, media, military, scientific, sport and technical diving. Experts, manufactures, instructor trainers, training agencies and divers from all over the world discussed this technology and shared information.

The programme included dedicated sessions covering topics such as medicine and physiology, closed circuit rebreather (CCR) orientation, business and operations, CCR familiarization, training, design and testing, and incident analysis.

Associate Professor Simon J Mitchell chaired the final session at RF3 and, as a result, 16 key consensus statements were agreed and ratified by the global rebreather community. You can hear this presentation by clicking here.

Two of the 16 consensus statements agreed at Rebreather Forum 3 concerned the use of checklists. RF3 acknowledged the overwhelming evidence demonstrating the efficacy of checklists in preventing errors and two recommendations were made. These are listed below.

REBREATHER FORUM 3 CONSENSUS STATEMENTS

CHECKLISTS:

The forum acknowledged the overwhelming evidence demonstrating the efficacy of checklists in preventing errors in parallel fields that share similar technical complexity. Two recommendations regarding checklists were consequently agreed:

1. CHECKLISTS

The forum recommends that rebreather manufacturers produce carefully designed checklists, which may be written and / or electronic, for use in the pre-dive preparation  (unit assembly and immediate pre-dive) and post-dive management of their rebreathers.

– Written checklists should be provided in a weatherproof or waterproof form.

– The current version of these checklists annotated with the most recent revision date should be published on the manufacturer’s website

2. CHECKLISTS

The forum recommends that training agencies and their instructors embrace the crucial leadership role in fostering a safety culture in which the use of checklists by rebreather divers becomes second nature.

 

TRAINING AND OPERATIONS:

1. TRAINING AND OPERATIONS

The forum applauds and endorses the release of pooled data describing numbers of rebreather certifications by training agencies, and encourages other agencies to join ANDI, IANTD, and TDI in this initiative

2. TRAINING AND OPERATIONS

The forum endorses the concept of making minimum rebreather training standards available in the public arena.

3. TRAINING AND OPERATIONS

The forum endorses the concept of a currency requirement for rebreather instructors. We recommend that training agencies give consideration to currency standards in respect of diving activity, class numbers, and unit specificity for their instructors.

4. TRAINING AND OPERATIONS

The forum recognizes and endorses the industry and training agency initiative to characterize “recreational” and “technical” streams of sport rebreather diver training. These groups will have different operational, training and equipment needs.

 

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

1. ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

The forum recommends that training agencies provide rebreather divers  with a simple list of instructions that will mitigate common errors in evidence preservation after a serious incident or rebreather fatality.

– These instructions will be developed under the auspices of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society Diving Committee in consultation with the relevant RF3 presenters.

2. ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

The forum endorses the concept of a widely notified centralized “on-call” consultation service to help investigators in avoiding errors or omissions in the early stages of a rebreather accident investigation, and to facilitate referral to expert investigative services.

3. ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

The forum recommends that in investigating a rebreather fatality the principal accident investigator invite the manufacturer of the incident rebreather (or other relevant equipment) to assist with its evaluation (including the crucial task of data download) as early as is practicable.

4. ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

The forum endorses the DAN worldwide initiative to provide a means of on-line incident reporting with subsequent analysis and publication of incident root causes.

 

DESIGN AND TESTING

1. DESIGN AND TESTING

The forum recommends that all rebreathers incorporate data logging systems which record functional parameters relevant to the particular unit and dive data, and which allow download of these data. Diagnostic reconstruction of dives with as many relevant parameters as possible is the goal of this initiative.

– Footnote: An ideal goal would be to incorporate redundancy in data logging systems, and as much as practical, to standardize the data to be collected

2. DESIGN AND TESTING

The forum endorses the need for third party pre-market testing to establish that rebreathers are fit for purpose. Results of a uniform suite of practically important unmanned testing parameters such as canister duration, and work of breathing (qualified by clear statements of experimental parameters) should be reported publicly. Ideally, this testing should be to an internationally recognized standard.

3. DESIGN AND TESTING

The forum acknowledges recent survey data indicating a poor understanding of rebreather operational limits in relation to depth and carbon dioxide scrubber duration among trained users, and therefore recommends:

1. that training organizations emphasize these parameters in training courses.

2. that manufacturers display these parameters in places of prominence in device documentation and on websites.

4. DESIGN AND TESTING

The forum strongly endorses industry initiatives to improve oxygen measurement technologies, and advocates consideration of potentially beneficial emerging strategies such as dynamic validation of cell readings and alternatives to galvanic fuel cells.

4. DESIGN AND TESTING

The forum identifies as a research question the issue of whether a mouthpiece retaining strap would provide protection of the airway in an unconscious rebreather diver.

6. DESIGN AND TESTING

The forum identifies as a research question the efficacy of a full face masks for use with sport rebreathers.

 

Are we there yet? Rebreather technology for recreational divers by Dr Petar Denoble

RF3, Rebreather Forum 3, Karl Shreeves, Richard Pyle, TUMC, The  Underwater Marketing Company, Roz Lunn, Rosemary E Lunn, Neal Pollock, Drew Richardson, Kevin Gurr, Phil Short, Jill Heinerth, Martin Parker, APD, Petar Denoble, Richard Vann, Rebreather Forum 2, Michael Menduno, Yochanan I. Daskalovic, DAN, PADI, AAUS, Douglas Ebersole,

"In the future, you'll simply jump into your car, turn on the Internet, turn on a movie and sit back and relax and turn on the automatic pilot, and the car will drive itself," says Michiko Kaku in his book Physics of the Future. "Unlike a human driver, it doesn't get drunk, it doesn't get distracted and certainly does not have road rage."

Even though driverless cars are not yet commercially available, driving a car is a simple process with all of the complex technology hidden from the user. Today's rebreather technology is a few steps behind, but it may be catching up.

Sixteen years ago diving scientists, manufacturers, divers, training agencies and regulators met for three days at Rebreather Forum 2.0 (RF2.0), in Redondo Beach, Calif., to discuss the future of "sport rebreather diving." At the time, at least one dozen rebreather models had appeared on the market, some of which were there to stay. The market was minuscule, and training opportunities were practically nonexistent. The consumer base consisted of about 100 brave, knowledgeable divers who recognized they could achieve more in their respective fields using rebreathers but at the cost of more work, money and risk than average divers were ready to commit.

RF2.0 reviewed the physiology of rebreather diving and the enabling technology, including the risks and needed enhancements if sport rebreather diving became popular. The findings and recommendations of RF2.0 emphasized the complexity of closed-circuit rebreathers (CCR), a need for technical support and better control of insidious risks including hypoxia, hyperoxia and hypercapnia. Additional safety issues were also noted such as a "caustic cocktail," an unanticipated variation in the partial pressure of nitrogen, thermal considerations and mechanical or electronic failures. Some technological advances were explicitly required, like full-face masks to prevent drowning in case of unconsciousness and an on-board carbon dioxide monitor to prevent carbon dioxide poisoning. Third party pre-marketing testing was advised, but standards were not proposed.

When compared to open-circuit scuba, rebreathers required significant ongoing maintenance and support to function properly; the consensus among the forum attendees was that rebreathers were suited for the technically savvy rather than the average diver. Military divers have successfully managed the risks of using rebreathers with resources not available in sport diving, including the use of a large supporting infrastructure, a high degree of discipline and extensive formal training.

Changing Tides: RF2.0 to RF3

Dr. Richard Pyle describes the experience of a self-taught rebreather diver best: "After my first 10 hours on a rebreather, I was a real expert. Another 40 hours of dive time later, I considered myself a novice. When I had completed about 100 hours of rebreather diving, I realized I was only just a beginner."

He did, however, provide a few survival tips for new rebreather divers:

    1. Know your partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) at all times; do not trust "fail-safe electronics."
    2. Learn, in depth, diving physics and physiology.
    3. Training should emphasize failure detection, manual control and bailout procedures.
    4. Cover your ass (have a back-up).

The experiences and tips of Dr. Pyle and his peers became the basis for development of formal training for technical rebreather divers.

But there were additional challenges for the trainers. According to Karl Shreeves, technical development executive for PADI worldwide, before the training agency could consider the instructional system, it was necessary to determine who the customers would be and how they would use rebreathers. PADI considered rebreather diving a niche not of interest to mainstream recreational divers at the time, but recognized the trend could change at any point. Indeed, a lot has changed; rebreather technology has improved, some training agencies have started offering instruction and the number of users has increased from hundreds to tens of thousands.

The fatalities have also risen accordingly to more than 20 per year, or more than 190 in the sixteen years since RF2.0. Not all of these fatalities were rebreather-specific, but all analyses indicate operator-machine interaction played a major role in it. It's an interaction that must be acknowledged, understood and made as safe as possible. Dietmar Luchtenberg of Europe's Rebreather Advisory Board said, "We can't get rid of safety issues in rebreather diving by [only] increasing technology standards." He emphasized the need and challenge of eliminating the factor of human error to enhance diver safety. After RF2.0, there was also a consensus about the significance of the human factor in the safety of rebreathers; the suggested approach seemed to be to develop a reasonably safe device and shift the residual risk to the users.

The full article is available here at AlertDiverOnline, the magazine for Divers Alert Network